There is a fine line between genius and madness.

04 Sep

So, what is the difference between a genius and a madman?

I would argue that perhaps there is no difference between them, in and of themselves… that the entirety of the difference may lie in external circumstances.

Take the person who follows their dream-idea with utter dedication ’til its fulfillment, or their life-energy is gone. What determines how they are viewed? Well, whether or not their idea was successful, I suppose.

Success is dependant on not being too far ahead of their time, on the opportunity and resources to follow their dreams, on the support of family, friends and extended community to permit them to “depart from the norm”. Very little is dependent on normal intelligence: if it was just normal intelligence, no-one would classify it as genius.

To get down to a more serious level, I’m hideously annoyed by how much of a taboo mental illness still is in our society.

People like to think we are gradually tackling the taboos in society. We chip away at them by having an open discussion forum where issues can be resolved. Whatever the situation in other cases, I am becoming increasingly convinced that this is not working in the case of mental illness.

And that bothers me.

There are a number of contributing factors. I’m not naive enough to think these factors are trivial or easily resolved… but I am conscious of the intertwining of issues in a trickily Catch22 manner.

Anyways, as best I can work it out at the moment, this seems to be the state of affairs:

  • No-one is willing to broach the question in the first place. By caring about the issue, there is the immediate suspicion raised that someone must have a vested interest, and therefore is very probably One of Them.
  • Leading neatly onto the issue of the stigma attached to being mentally ill. Somehow, being mentally ill is a ‘weakness’ in a way that physical illness is not so closely allied with as it once was. Somehow we’re all meant to show “strength of character” in facing all life throws at us. Albeit with moments of reduced-smilingness, but nevertheless having a brave and courageous spirit.
  • No-one is willing to be a spokesperson for these people deemed the weak of society. By becoming a spokesperson, it is allying yourself with them and somehow detracting some of the merit and sensible-ness from what you do actually say.
  • Becoming One of Them is thereby considered such a major step by society, that only those really “driven to the extremity” ever do face up to the scary prospect of receiving the stigma. This in itself helps to perpetuate the notion, as it is those most extreme cases that exemplify the definition, thereby reinforcing the idea of the worst-case-scenario with respect to being mentally ill.
  • Anyone willing to be such a spokesperson from within the ostracised community is written off with “You can’t listen to them… they’ve got mental health problems… *nudge* *wink* We all know the dangers of that!”

    But do we? We might like to think we do, but because we never discuss them, it is all just guesswork. As my dear Dad was reminding me last night:

      Robert Bolton said about fears that we pierce ourselves through with many sorrows which may never come to pass; they are just as sore as if they did come to pass! Better to take one day at a time

    With mental illness, we have this great picture of the danger and fear of it, and yet a chunk of that fear is nothing more than the fear of the unknown: the stuff we’ve never talked about so we don’t know what to expect, or know how to go about tackling it.

Ok, so all this is one side of it, yet there is even a far more logical and worryingly reasonable issue with being branded as mentally ill: the management of an individuals autonomy.

On a practical level, I have heard it admitted that now we do not in our country give mentally ill people an appropriate level of autonomy. Clearly it is a difficult issue even from a theoretical viewpoint, yet very often the focus of any discussion is on removing autonomy for the safety and good of others, as well as protecting people from themselves.

Yet, from a mental health aspect, it is the very loss of autonomy which can perpetuate the unhealthily negative spiral. While previously feeling out-of-control of their lives, they now quite literally are out-of-control of their lives. If anything perpetuates that feeling, it is certainly the loss of autonomy.

Now I’m not arguing there should not be some legitimate, and accepted, loss of autonomy… but only that the balance should be very carefully drawn. There is an injustice and a helplessness in a mentally ill person having too much autonomy taken from them. As justification, I would offer the one cruel reason that it creates a subsequent inability to argue their own case: anything they say can be written off as “just the illness speaking”.

I would suggest that to some level a person may be capable of understanding for themselves where that balance should be. We’ve all been caught in an argument where we’ve found ourselves boxed-in-a-corner. We know perfectly well we’re being unreasonable, but the embarrassment of admitting our fault tempts us to say something illogical and unreasonable, and… well, just blatantly silly!

It is possible in some circumstances to identify what makes us reach these boxed-in situations, thereby finding our own techniques to handle the situation. For example, using the old cliche to “count to ten”.

People do know for themselves when things are “not quite right”. Similarly in some cases of mental illness (perhaps the less extreme cases) it may be possible for the individual to explain “The fear usually hits when I go to sleep”, so prescribing a willingly entered into situation where the autonomy of the individual is restricted only while they are going to sleep. This then permits them to face the challenge of the rest of their lives for themselves.

But then, that power should be wielded carefully. If someone honestly realises what autonomy they need to fore-go for their own and others benefit, and they are willing to admit as much, and permit that autonomy to be taken from them, it is by no means justified to take more than the granted share of autonomy “in the interests of safety” or whatever the excuse may be.

One of the best pieces of advice my Dad has given me involves decision-making:

Never make decisions when you are sick, tired or angry.

Incidentally, the one story I have to tell is when this advice has not helped me. (There have been numerous times when I have tested it out as a psychological exercise, and have proven it to be sensible.)

There was an occasion when I was quite ill on the morning of an exam. Knowing that I could potentially be feeling better by the time of the exam in the afternoon, and also knowing that I would perhaps have to skip the exam, I asked advice of trusted people, primarily someone within my university department who was to some measure responsible for dealing with such cases. I made the deliberate decision before I heard the advice, that I would follow it even if I personally disagreed with it.

This decision was based around the idea of me forfeiting my autonomy in a situation where I knew my rationality was compromised by the usual very-short-term perspective introduced by illness. Anyways, to keep the story to a reasonable length, the result was that I did sit the exam (while ridiculously ill) and I do with hindsight think that that was definitely the wrong decision.

However, I don’t for one moment regret my approach to making the decision. As an individual, I bear responsibility for the decision, yet in the circumstances I could do no better than use the best resources available to me for that decision. The fact that those resources turned out to be not-good-enough does not detract from the reality that it was “the best I had at the time”.

I guess all this is a bit tangential, but I was trying to illustrate my understanding of this concept of autonomy, and the complexity of the issues it raises.

Anyways, on this note I think I have said enough, dear friends. The very best of health to you all, especially mental health 😉

Ps: My favourite film is still “A Beautiful Mind” Not necessarily because it is the best film ever, but because it does address issues that no-one else dares talk about… And also, it makes me cry every time! No matter that I can see the “weepy” bits coming, and try to stop myself… but hey!

If I was to be perfectly honest, the latter third is overly fairytale-like in the triumph over mental illness. Not that I believe such triumph is not possible, but more because I believe society the way it is right now does not “allow” people to have that sort of victory over their own ‘inner demons’ or whatever you may wish to call them.


Posted by on Tuesday, September 4, 2007 in philosophy


Tags: , ,

26 responses to “There is a fine line between genius and madness.

  1. Angela

    Tuesday, September 4, 2007 at 5:51 pm

    Very interesting post Rachel. I completely agree that there’s a great stigma attached to mental problems but I do think that this is (slowly) changing over time.

    One problem is that the very term “mental illness” lumps together a whole range of very different problems from Anorexia to Alzheimer’s. Each condition covered by this blanket term presents a very different set problems for sufferers and those around them. Therefore you can’t really talk overarchingly about autonomy in relation to sufferers of mental illness as different problems necessitate different measures. It comes down to, I guess, how much the sufferer can be relied on to not harm themselves or others e.g. a severe anorexic left to their own devices may die from their condition a la Karen Carpenter, should we let such people continue down that path or intervene? However, that’s starting to get into a whole other debate so I’ll leave that thought there.

    As you point out I think fear is also a major factor in the stigma attached to mental issues. Fear of the unknown, fear of the loss of control and fear that you might not be able to trust yourself are all pretty scary. There’s perhaps not much that can be done about that but at least the “unknown” part can be addressed by better education and social dialog on these issues. I think this is starting to improve, for example last year Stephen Fry made a two-part documentary “The Secret Life of the Manic Depressive” discussing his and other people’s experiences of living with bipolar disorder. This was well received and shown in a prime-time viewing slot. Conditions such as Anorexia, Bulimia, Autism, Aspergers, and OCD are now discussed much more openly and appear regularly in books and tv shows. Indeed the fact that people reading this would now know what the majority of these conditions are is a huge step forward from where we were even ten years ago. However, most of the conditions that are “accepted” in mainstream society are those that can (arguably) be viewed as having a traditional biological “cause” that can then to some extent be remedied with drugs. People seem to be more fearful and less accepting of problems that don’t seem to have any link to a scientific root, such as schizophrenia (as featured in A Beautiful Mind). Perhaps this is due to our society being so entrenched in a scientific paradigm that things that don’t fit this model aren’t given equal validity and concern? However, by writing posts such as this you’re helping get these issues out in the open and pushing us in the right direction 🙂

    In response to the title of your post I’d say that the main difference between “geniuses” and “madmen” is how they feel about viewing the world differently to everyone else and how their doing so affects others. In my humble opinion as long as someone is happy with their way of seeing the world and their way of doing things then so long as this is not damaging to themselves or others then I’d let them get on with it… leaving the way open for wonderful acts of “genius” 😉

  2. rach

    Tuesday, September 4, 2007 at 7:05 pm

    Thanks, Angela 🙂 for taking the time to give me such a meaty response!

    Plenty to get me thinking even further on this topic 🙂 just when I thought I’d already exceeded my word-count! Thankyou for alerting me to the more long-term perspective, that some of us don’t quite have the priveledge of having! (Grr, I feel age-discriminated against 😉 for not-knowing the stuff from before I was born 😛 )

    Concerning different forms of mental illness, you are right to pick me up on treating them all as one big cloud rather than studying all the intricacies of each. Maybe there will be enough scope there for a few more posts 😛 *rubs hands in stats-glee* Do feel free to provide a mind-map, should you feel that way inclined! I must honestly claim to not be much of an expert on details, though. But I felt that, despite my ignorance, it is enough of a worrying dillema that I wanted to get the conversation started… wherever it may lead!

    Yes, I was seeking to help open things out in this post. On hinting to various people that I was considering posting about mental illness, I had various responses along the lines of “you are brave to tackle that!” – well, I couldn’t back out after that! Despite the feeling of stepping out into No Man’s Land, there is a case for daring to do so, because it is by such small steps that hopefully cumulative progress can be made.

    Speaking of autonomy, though we cannot have one rule to fit all, I perhaps was not sufficiently clear of my overarching belief, that the level of autonomy should *always* be considered on a case-by-case basis, even in similar cases, never mind cases that bridge the wide spectrum you mention.

    There are so many factors that come into the decision, that simply using one criteria cannot be absolute. However I certainly accept that the lack of autonomy can be, and does need to be, used to prevent harm. But how to remove autonomy while still fostering an independent individuality is the tricky part!

    Do people cease to be “people” when they lose their autonomy? Ok, that is an extreme view of things, but there is a grain of truth that needs to be considered.

    Also, I think there is scope for “finer-grained control” of autonomy. I don’t believe it has to be as black-and-white as either you have it or you don’t… but there are areas of life where the control is crucial to the illness (e.g. food with respect to eating disorders) yet outwith that realm a deliberate effort can be made to allow the person autonomy of expression.

    By encouraging ‘creativity’ in aspects of a persons life that do *not* have a (direct) bearing on their illness, it can allow the person to still feel in control, while they are suffering the indignity of feeling patronised in other areas of their life. It also enables a healthy dose of responsibility to form a part of someones life – without responsibility people have little motivation.
    For example, perhaps having a pet that needs fed regularly can help to foster a meaningful routine in someones life, when other motivations like work may have been taken away due to their illness. (Long term sick)

    I don’t think these ideas are new… but it seems in some cases they can be forgotton about precisely when they could do the most good. I’ve heard of someone having a spell in a mental hospital, where the running of the place organisationally had the side-effect of leaving the patients with nothing to do during the day, and pretty much nothing they were allowed to do either, because they were all in this enforced situation of having their autonomy removed for their own, and others, good. They may have needed their autonomy removed, but they also needed something to do with themselves all day, every day. The place felt like a vacuum! I was barely in there for 10minutes, and I couldn’t get out quick enough… it could be enough to make anyone go mad to make them live there for a while!

    Personally, I believe that such an environment is damaging to anyone’s mental health, never mind people who are already “less immune”. (Think of prisoners for whom it is torture to be left in solitary confinement – it is a similar type of issue.) And that is why, most especially in those cases where autonomy does need to be taken from a person, it is critically important that counter-balancing steps are taken to reduce the harmful effects of this very step itself! Just because removing autonomy can cause harm does not mean it isn’t neccessary, but the harm can be recognised and dealt with, rather than ignored in the black-and-white environment that does exist in some places.

    On a slightly lighter note, 🙂 you raise an interesting perspective in your response to “genius or madman” w.r.t. it not being how others treat them, but how willingly they are to treat others ‘decently’ while they are about it, rather than any more objective (scientific? 😛 ) measure of success. Now you raise it, I think I prefer your definition 😉

  3. Jo

    Tuesday, September 4, 2007 at 10:18 pm

    I feel when I am unwell (even for a short time) I end up in either wild delusionals of grandeur, severe and paralysing fear or a combination of fear and confusion whereby I literally phone people for reassurance that I’m ‘not going stupid’. It often feels like part of my brain has literally been sucked away and when the demons are bad I find myself doing things I would not normally do (like attacking myself) or equally when high I find the most irrational of things seem so rational and sensible like I’m thinking as clear as day. And woe betide anyone who tries to tell me otherwise!

    The depression likewise can leave one questioning the point of this short time on earth, though even when ‘well’ I lose my concentration easily and get tired easily (or confused or brain fried. That’s awful cos I can’t understand English at that point). So therefore working at the moment, whilst a long term goal, is a long way off.

    But I thank the Lord and the prayers of his people. They mean the world to me! My twin sister has disowned me for my disability (I generally don’t call it a mental illness) so my Christian family mean so much to me.

    I remember a time a few years ago whereby I stopped all medication (was high as well) and like gotten rid of the doctors and was too out of it to get to church and all the Lord’s folk did was pray for me for 3 months. I didn’t even phone them! 3 months later I’m at rock bottom. Scared witless of Tony Blair and taking a rucksack full of books with me, found myself sectioned in Sweden (I left the rucksack at the airport trying to escape the medics). A few weeks later I was phoning the Hornes asking them to send me a bible and apart from when I’ve been off meds I’ve been able to read it virtually every day ever since. I couldn’t read it hardly at all before. Even on good days I thought I would be killed for reading it. That’s how much prayer helps.

    Thanks for tackling this Rach.



  4. Jo

    Tuesday, September 4, 2007 at 10:18 pm

    PS. Yep psych hospitals are ridiculously boring but usually these days I’m too out of to concentrate much anyway!

  5. Angela

    Tuesday, September 4, 2007 at 11:39 pm

    What a diplomatic way of telling me I’m old Rachel 😉 Unfortunately the pace of change with this type of thing seems to be so glacial that it’s almost imperceptible unless you take a much more long range view!

    I’m afraid that, rather boringly (stats-wise 😉 ), I completely agree with your comments – autonomy is certainly not an all or nothing thing and levels and situations under which it is denied should absolutely be decided on a case by case basis. I guess that part of the problem that leads to the all or nothing approach in some settings is a pure and simple lack of resources. Sad, but probably true.

    Have had several more strands of thought while reading the comments but should really be writing my essay and I’m a bit too tired to do them justice so I’ll just jot them down as potential talking points (and so I don’t forget 🙂 ):

    Bipolar disorder – medication problems
    Talking therapy – more acceptable in USA?
    One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest

    Go forth and write 😉

  6. Jo

    Wednesday, September 5, 2007 at 7:15 am

    Awe tx. You were up late! Sorry I didn’t write much but you were brave to tackle it on your blog and you did it well. Complicated but not too much. Well done! Hugs.

    I just felt I had to bring my comment back to Christ at the end. Hence I did.

    Mr Horne (ex-tbs) is on his last legs (literally – he has leukaemia). He can’t walk now and has a Macmillan nurse in every day.

    I think some people do suffer with demon possession. I believe I have demons inside me who sometimes choose to raise their ugly heads. (from before I was saved). I praise God for the medicine because without it I know I couldn’t function anywhere near as well as I do.

    Just up. Having my usual coffee and cigs :). I would love to be able to quit the cigs but every time I try I just seem to get so unwell it’s not worth it.

    I believe having a nice house to live in (even if mine is somewhat humble in ‘junkie towers’) also really helps. My house is getting tidier by the week thanks to this worker from Supported Housing and it really helps my mind.

    I also believe that when one is well enough having enough stuff to do is important. I have loads of stuff (paid for by the government. Yep, I’m govt funded! Tee hee) for which I thank the Lord but some days all I can do is sit and watch tv all day (but you know my tv is only small. Just a wee 14″. My computer monitor is bigger! Refuse to have anything bigger than a 14″ tv in my house. It’s a sign of stupidity). Currently I’m just trying my hand at making cards using tea-bag folding which is rather fun. Yesterday I did decoupage (really hard) at the drop in centre but it looked good when I’d finished it and today (busy day) I’m doing needle felting (£12 one off class) at some craft shop to improve my needle felting skills. I also cherish my bus pass for days when you just NEED to get out of town without going too far away and making yourself ill. And also for times when you’re simply too tired to walk home from the drop in or you have heavy shopping.

    With regards my own experience of faith and religion. I believe my paranoia is the fear of man (as mentioned in Prov 25 I think? I pray that verse over and over) and so therefore I believe it is a lack of faith. But with regards things like confusion then not so. It’s hard when I’m confused to understand very much and sometimes I can’t even speak so I don’t see how that could be a lack of faith. I also get psychosomatic pain (a lot and it can be really painful) when overly anxious and I believe the deterioration in my ability to walk when unwell (I use a stick) is also psychological but somehow, no matter how hard I try, I just can’t get my legs to work! (I shuffle at best).



  7. Jo

    Wednesday, September 5, 2007 at 7:17 am

    PS. Angela never mind the talking therapy. What about the chocolate therapy? Is not the need for chocolate part of the female disposition. I’ve been asking for it on prescription for YEARS! To absolutely no avail!

    PPS. Anyone else get manic on too much coffee?

  8. rach

    Wednesday, September 5, 2007 at 7:28 am

    Aw, A, I sooo didn’t mean it like that 😉 No need to put a negative spin on it… I was only valuing your experience.

    Feel free to explain your additional strands sometime.. 😀

    Jo: Yes, I have seen Mr Horne before, so I know who he is even though I do not know him well. Thanks for letting me know how he is.

    Hmm, I don’t have much comments to add on everything else you said…! Well, its not like I can contradict when I don’t know any better, but then I don’t know enough to agree either. 🙂 *sits on the fence* Hope you enjoy your needle felting! Love, Rach

  9. Grant

    Wednesday, September 5, 2007 at 9:26 am

    Just thought I’d add couple of things to Angela’s list of potential talking points.

    David Lynch’s excellent film Lost Highway explores an idea that fascinates me: so-called psychogenic or dissociative fugue i.e. the creation in a person’s mind of a completely new identity and existence.

    Another excellent film which (I think!) deals with this is Memento. There is a split-second, almost subliminal, scene in which we see the main protagonist in an insane asylum. This, and a couple of other scenes, call into question the whole of the rest of the film – a film which is already rather confusing to follow because the story is told in reverse order…

    So, am I actually sitting at my desk typing this or is it all in my head? 😉

  10. Melon Zest

    Wednesday, September 5, 2007 at 9:27 am

    Vincent van Gogh chopped his ear off and sent it to his girlfriend.
    Girlfirend[on the phone]: eewww. that was gross!
    Vince: I ‘ear you baby 😉 hehe

  11. Melon Zest

    Wednesday, September 5, 2007 at 9:36 am

    For years people have been debating whether van Gogh was a genious or a madman. I think he was madly in love 😉

  12. rach

    Wednesday, September 5, 2007 at 9:37 am

    Ach, I’m sooo behind on all this watchable-stuff business! 😉 At least Angela’s recommendation was handily on youTube, for watching in 14 parts! *has done her homework* [Edit: The Stephen Fry documentary, I mean.]

    Yes, we are all in your head 😛 Can you not see the painted white wall right through us, especially when we appear in your nightmares.

    *is looking forward to some interesting (if scary) discussions!* (There’s only so much of this stuff I can ‘take’ at one sitting 😉 *has a small appetite*) But, as A mentioned, the fear of the unknown can be reasonably tackled:

    …at least the “unknown” part can be addressed by better education and social dialog on these issues.

  13. Grant

    Wednesday, September 5, 2007 at 11:18 am

    My apologies for not providing enough research material for you 🙂 You can borrow the DVDs any time you like but I wouldn’t want to be held responsible for any subsequent mind pollution (particularly from Lost Highway). Here are the trailers:

  14. Grant

    Thursday, September 6, 2007 at 9:58 am

    I just had another random thought (I still have high hopes that one day I will have a proper grown-up non-random thought but that’s another tangent 😉 ).

    Does anyone remember David Icke? When he announced that he was the Son of God on the Terry Wogan show he was widely ridiculed and branded as being mentally ill. I heard him interviewed on Radio 1’s Nicky Campbell Show and it actually all sounded fairly plausible to my then in-spiritual-turmoil teenage mind. The fact that the Son of God had chosen to begin his Second Coming as the Coventry City goalkeeper and then a TV snooker commentator was a mere side issue… 🙂 . Anyway, I think what I’m trying to say is that if there is a God and there is at some point in the future a Second Coming of Christ then how is He going to avoid being locked up in an asylum? In fact, perhaps the Second Coming has already happened and He’s already been branded as a lunatic? I suppose the easy way round this would be for it all to happen amidst obviously miraculous events but easily believable stuff requiring little faith kind of goes against the grain for God, doesn’t it? Or is the “end of days” supposed to be different?

  15. Jo

    Thursday, September 6, 2007 at 11:01 am

    With regards the second coming. The Bible says every eye shall see him. So if he’s already long term committed – well, I ‘aint seen him 😛

    But then again it could be you Grant trying to make sense of random, sitting on the confused couch on the puter all day. Which makes me wonder? Is the internet really an anti christ or just vista 😉

    Och joking aside. I digress. I also believe that at the second coming every one will realise and have their eyes opened that he is God. Even the psychs and the nurses and the weird junkies. (and others who I care not to mention). So I doubt if he’ll get sectioned. It wouldn’t quite be right would it.

    And did people in Outer Mongolia see David Icke? Did I see him? Nope! It was past my bedtime 😛

  16. cath

    Thursday, September 6, 2007 at 11:00 pm

    Yes rachel i think it’s time you did a post on eschatology.

    Perhaps you could use this rubbish quiz as your starting point

    (It’s rubbish cos i came out as amillenial, which is clearly wrong 🙂 (isn’t it?! jk) )

  17. rach

    Friday, September 7, 2007 at 7:19 am

    I’m a Left Behind 👿 what’s that all about!?

    Umm, eschatology is not exactly my strongest point. I am not really “a great studier of prophecy” as I had to own up to a certain friend of yours from Stornoway…

    Tho’ maybe its about time I started! 🙂

  18. Grant

    Friday, September 7, 2007 at 8:45 am

    Bizarrely, there is an eschatological videogame called Left Behind: Eternal Forces! It caused a bit of a fuss when it was released last year.

  19. cath

    Friday, September 7, 2007 at 11:31 am

    Yeh i blogged about it actually 🙂

  20. Jo

    Saturday, September 8, 2007 at 10:11 am

    Eschatology just makes one paranoid which is why it SHOULDN’T BE on a post about mental illness. Cathy what WERE you thinking of! I’m shocked. Can’t we stick to the subject matter in hand?

    And btw for those that don’t know Mr Horne passed into glory Thursday morning.

    And now I must get ready for work 😛


  21. Jo

    Saturday, September 8, 2007 at 10:12 am

    PS. Are these comments done in html? Let me know? I have a cool addon with html from firefox 🙂

  22. rach

    Saturday, September 8, 2007 at 8:29 pm

    Interesting site I came across, while browsing LinkedIn 😉 *is not caught in the act of visiting social networking sites* 😛

  23. Jo

    Monday, September 10, 2007 at 3:01 pm

    Yep I’ve forwarded that all over the shop. Tx Rach. But now me legs arenae working 😦

  24. Esther

    Friday, September 14, 2007 at 6:09 pm

    don’t mental illnesses and genius go hand in hand!many great minds had social problems and all that kind of thing!

  25. Jo

    Wednesday, September 19, 2007 at 10:10 am

    Yep thanks Esther. Knew I could rely on you to confirm my genius LOL. Okay now you can tell Derek Maclean! 😉

  26. Jo

    Wednesday, September 19, 2007 at 10:11 am

    Actually how can major confusion be seen as genius? Hmmm


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